H A R W O O D
O R I G I N
The surname Harwood
originally was used as a regional appellation. Regional
surnames stem from place names including rivers,
countries, and man made features such as buildings,
crossroads and many other objects, A person could be given
a name indicating a place which was readily recognised.
An individual living near a hill would be so designated,
perhaps one living or working by a church would have been
given the name Church, In this case the surname was used
for one who resided at Harewood a village 12 klms north of
Early records of the surname
Harwood as a variant include Alice Harewode from Harwood
who was recorded in the subsidy Rolls of Somerset in the
year 1327. The Subsidy Rolls were a relief granted by
parliament to the king in times of need to assist the
country with finance in times of need or urgency, such as
war etc. This money was recovered by the realm in the
form of taxes which were levied on the general
population. This method of tax collection was used
extensively during the early 1300.
Later Robertus de Harwoode
and William de Harwode of Harwood all appeared in the Poll
tax of Yorkshire in 1379. The Poll Tax, otherwise known
as Octroi, was a tax levied by local authorities or
commune on certain goods which entered the precincts of
their authority. In 1380 this levy led to a revolt as a
uniform tax was imposed on each individual.
An oyster seller by the name
of Esther Harwood was convicted and sentenced at a court
in Old Bailey, London for transportation and imprisonment
for 7 years, at the age of 29 years. They were
transported to Australia aboard the convict ship Lady
Penrfyn as one of seven hundred and eight convicts which
formed the First Fleet that departed England in May 1787
to establish a penal colony in New South Wales in 1788.
BLAZON OF ARMS:
Chequy or azure on a
bend gules three eagles displayed argent.
stag's head cabossed gules holding in the mouth a slip of
oak proper fructed or between the attires a buglehorn
stringed also gules.